teaching and health
Education and health
At the end of the year 2021, when dealing with education, it is inevitable to refer to the ravages of the disease and mortality caused by the covid-19 pandemic in much of the world; For this reason, the subtitle of this book on Current Education is "Teaching and health", since it will refer mainly to the circumstances motivated by the mandatory quarantine applied politically to the entire population, which entails the change in educational practice that has had place from the beginning of 2020 to the date indicated, which should be historically referred to as the first period of the pandemic, which includes from its origin in China and its subsequent spread throughout the world until November 2021. From December 2021 to the same month of 2022 -according to a probabilistic calculation by Fernández-Carrión-, the second period will take place, characterized by new mutations of the virus that will develop cyclically (a few months will be active and others will not throughout 2022) in the mainly affected countries. of the first period, along with these same pandemic characteristics, it spreads to other continents (Africa, Oceania... and some Asian areas ) and countries that had not previously been intensively affected (Poland, Sweden, Portugal...), such as the United States, Brazil, England, Italy, among others in much of Europe and America, fundamentally; all this with the political will to create such a degree of fear among the population around the world, with the war of disinformation promoted by all governments to confront their own populations between those vaccinated and those who oppose the mediated compulsory vaccination with political penalties. The ultimate goal of this pandemic has been exclusively the vaccination of the entire world population, by country, throughout the two periods of expansion and development of covid-19, indicated above; The third period is still missing, which will run from the end of 2022 onwards, and in which the World Health Organization (WHO) will end up declaring SARS-CoV2 an endemic disease for the purpose of an annual vaccination in successive doses (“of updating” verbi gratia the computer systems, of the contents “programmed” in the nanochip included in the doses) to the entire global population. With this we want to show, seen from a prospective theoretical perspective, that knowing the ultimate goal of this world health crisis: the massive surveillance of the population, it is easier to discover who, if any, have provoked and spread this pandemic in the world.
I Psychological introduction to international education
In understanding the spectacle of today's world, a double pedagogical conviction is imposed: on the one hand, it is about attending to the constitution of the international spirit from considering it above all a matter of education; indeed, to men and women accustomed to the old points of view, the difficulty of thinking and acting on the current human scale seems so great that a special and organized education is revealed to be necessary. But on the other hand, and for the same reasons, the idea arises that international education could not be reduced to a particular teaching, well defined in its contents and deployed in a certain number of lessons in the school programs, but that it implies (the same than national training) a general and permanent spirit that must be reflected in the totality of education.
II Responsibility versus empathy
There are countries, professionals and part of the population that are especially interested in imposing the concept of empathy over the sense of responsibility. Many people try to imply that both terms are synonyms, but that is far from reality, since they are opposites, they can occur together, in a complementary way; but, generally one or the other can be applied, and of course their development is not consubstantial with the human being, but rather they are acquired and/or applied intentionally throughout life.
PART I. EDUCATION DURING TIME OF PANDEMIC
1 First pedagogical approach in a world with a pandemic
Within the political theories of society, which Freire calls "theory of antagonistic action", a conflicting proposal is presented between the practice of the establishment and the revolutionary movement, or between the dominant and the oppressed (Freire). Antagonistic actions between an antidialogic position (antidialogicity) carried out by the oppressors and the dialogicity (dialogicity) of the dominated (Freire) or the political practice of the power group, establishment, national and global, and the actions of the revolutionary movement. In the first, anti-dialogicity, used by the dominant groups, is developed with the application of the following constitutive elements, according to Freire: conquest, division of their opponents, manipulation of these and cultural invasion, while it is more convenient do it with the following these concepts: political and legal control, political strategy, mental manipulation and cultural alignment.
2 Medical education in the face of the global health crisis due to covid-19
In this text entitled "Medicine in the face of the global health crisis" around the SARS-CoV2 (covid-19) pandemic, it is about the repercussion that has taken place on the health and quality of life of the majority of people. the population of the world, and also about the changes that have occurred in the educational process. First, a brief overview of the impact of the pandemic on people's health is prepared. Next, the topic is centered around the momentary change from the face-to-face to the online teaching modality, during the time that the quarantine has lasted (which, exceptionally in history, has been applied by governments with obligation to the entire population of the respective countries), exposing the characteristics of the training type with the application of new technologies and in particular around digital education. Thirdly, the seven challenges that are currently being verified in the health sciences are shown, and specifically those presented by students and professionals of Medicine, and finally, the changes that have occurred in teaching due to the coronavirus pandemic, based on the training practices that have taken place in this special time of quarantine and post-quarantine in Mexico and Spain, both countries being the same in the practices and educational concerns of teachers and students, during these situations special health and social life.
3 Educational inclusion in special education classrooms in the post-covid stage
The "new normality" experienced by students enrolled in special education classrooms after the period of confinement due to covid-19 has been accompanied by the creation of the so-called "bubble groups". This organizational modality, undoubtedly necessary to preserve the health of students, their families and teachers, has undermined the concept of inclusive education, limiting attention to diversity to segregating practices in which the little contact that students have with educational needs schooled in these classrooms he had been maintaining before the confinement with his classmates at the school.
4 Ethics in health sciences research
In research in general, it is based on the idea that ethics should be applied equally in any type of social analysis (where the human being is the center of the study); but, it must be specified that there are areas of knowledge in which the application of what has been analyzed has a greater positive or negative impact, depending on whether it is used in people or not, in one way or another, with respect to its existence and/or its own body. One of these areas is clinical medicine, and within it psychiatry and psychoanalysis, which are used to understand the mind, behaviors... and emotions of each subject/patient; what affects their daily life, as well as affects their environment and their community; fundamentally related to personal and social development.
PART II. RESEARCH ON EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES
5 The benefits of active break programs in educational practice
The benefits that active breaks, brain breaks, movement lessons... have on people's health have been evidenced in different investigations with a common goal: increase the time of physical practice and reduce sedentary lifestyle (González et al., 2020 : 489; Montoya-Fernández., 2020:157; Grace et al., 2019:2). To understand these benefits, we must start from the following basis: physical exercise provides a series of positive effects on our body and brain, in such a way that it reduces both metabolic diseases (Thyfault and Bergouignan, 2020: 1465) and cardiovascular conditions (Fiuza- Luces, et al., 2018:732) and has positive effects on aging (Whitty et al., 2020:113) and on diseases that do not affect the body's metabolism and its ability to break down food (Healy et al, 2018: 819).
6 Thinking routines: how to help students to think, reflect and discuss the thoughts obtained
Through the thought routines, it is intended that the main objective in the way of teaching classes is the development of thought, so that what is worked on in the classroom is carried out in an "experiential" way for the students. It is a way for them to be able to get involved in their own learning, for which also achieves another goal: to change the way of teaching (Calleja, 2017:4).
PART II. DESIGN OF EDUCATIONAL PROJECTS
7 Alternatives in the design of university social service intervention projects
The objective of this research is to provide elements for the design of objectives, methodology and activities in the development of projects to be applied by the brigade members in the social service process. As a result, a series of useful recommendations were obtained to be used by the brigade members to improve the quality of life of the population.
Death penalty and bioethics: the denial referred to the life drive
Introduction to the violent act of the death penalty
The death penalty is not the consequence of an act of "strict compliance with the law", much less an involuntary or casual action of human beings who temporarily exercise functions of legal authority against the rest of the majority of the population whom they historically considered (the absolute monarchies during the past centuries until the French revolution -1789-1799-): subjects, (the Catholic and Protestant Church, which are part of the established political power, in a large number of countries of Western culture, in general until the 19th century): parishioners and (normally under the republican forms of government or the organization of the “democratic” state, from the 19th century onwards): citizens, but it is the consequence of a premeditated and intentional action during the exercise of “authority”, which socially (of according to sociology) applies it through a means of authoritarian and vindictive power against the majority of the population.
The relationship between the members of humanity can be described with the idea expressed by Thomas Hobbes: "homo homini lupus" (the man [and the woman] is a wolf for the man [and the woman; in short, for the rest of population that is not oneself] (Hobbes, 1642).This violent and bloody relationship between human beings throughout history, evolutionary theory, with the approach of the naturalist Charles Darwin in On the origin of the species (On the origin of species, 1859) links it to the human process of "natural selection" for survival; but, later, the anthropologist Marvin Harris (1992) highlights the excessive use of force by some people against all living beings, including their species itself, which exceeds the simple action of natural survival.
According to Fernández-Carrión, there is a natural difference due to the natural law pointed out by the Greek poet (philosopher-political scientist) Sophocles (496-406 BC) in Antigone (Ἀντιγόνη, premiered as a theatrical performance c. 441 BC) (1981, lines 449-460 ), prior to natural law (“ius naturale” Roman) non-judicial, and therefore not political, between murder and legal justice: intentionality. When a death of a human being occurs as a result of an involuntary, casual act or caused by a momentary state of mental derangement, it simply consists of death, but when a being dies due to a premeditated action and with the intention of causing irreparable vital damage refers to a murder, whether it is done by a person in their daily life, or if it is carried out under the excuse of being carried out during a period of war or under the legal provision of politicians or judicial sentence . It is therefore essential to establish and appreciate the difference between death and murder, before delving into the problematic issue of the death penalty.
Faced with the official institutional perpetuation of the death penalty, as the greatest example of public hatred between human beings and the consolidation of the violence of power, different authors and movements of nonviolence have been opposed throughout history in different countries of the world. , from the "Declaration of the rights of man and citizen" of 1789, with the beginning of the French revolution, approved by the French National Constituent Assembly, on August 26, 1789, institutionalizing Masonic currencies during the bourgeois revolution , from: “Liberty, equality and fraternity”, made public by the politician Robespierre, in 1790 (Presidency of the [French] Republic, s/f). Anti-violent positions shown, for example, by the French writer Victor Hugo, the Algerian-French writer Albert Camus, the British politician John Stuart Mill and the Mexican nun and writer Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz.